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Fractals have the property of **self-similarity:** a small part looks like the whole. We can
see that in this image of a Koch curve, a fractal named for Swedish mathematician Helge von Koch. At top
we see three big clusters, like the arms and head of a lumpy snowman. But each is made of similar
clusters, and so on down to infinity. How did Koch construct such an infinitely wiggly curve?

The Koch curve begins as the simple ** seed shape ** seen here, just 4 lines. Then we shrink
down the seed shape--as we say in mathematics we apply a ** scaling transformation ** --and
replace its first line with a miniature version of itself. We do that for all 4 lines, and now we have
the output of the first ** iteration.**

In each iteration we do the same process, replacing lines with miniature versions of the original seed, and
then bringing the output in as the input for the next iteration. We refer to a process in which outputs are
used as inputs as a "**recursive** loop."

Click "Edit Mode" to enter the edit mode. Click and hold on a node and drag it to move it around, or single click to move it around then click again to place it. Double click on a line between nodes to insert a new node. It will be the color you have selected. To change colors, click on a color at the bottom then click on the line you wish to change. When you are done creating your seed shape, click on "Iterate Mode" and move from "Iter 1" on up to eight to see the fractal take shape!

**Red:** Regular

**Blue:** Flip

**Orange:** Invert

**Purple:** Invert and Flip

**Green:** Passive Line

**Gray:** Invisible

**Delete/Backspace Key:** Delete Node

In Africa, recursive loops are sometimes represented as a snake that bites its own tail. Just as contemporary computer science uses recursion to model the fractal structures in nature, Indigenous African knowledge recognizes and makes use of the "self-generating" properties of certain natural and social systems.

Another snake symbol in Africa represents well-being that lasts forever. They say that the snake is infinitely long, but it can fit in a finite space, because it has "coiled back on itself." As we will see, fitting infinite length into a finite space is also a good description of a fractal.

When the ruler size is: | Koch Curve | The measured length is: |
---|---|---|

6 inches | 6 inches | |

2 inches | 8 inches | |

0.5 inches | 12 inches |

The smaller we make the ruler, the more we measure. The "real" length is infinity! But how can we distinguish the "high" Koch curves from the "low" Koch curves if they all measure infinity?

As we shrink down the ruler size, the length increases to infinity. But how fast does it increase? For a smooth Koch curve, it increases slowly. For a rough one it increases quickly. The slope of the line tells you how fast or slow. It is the fractal dimension.

A line has one dimension, a square 2, But fractals are in-between, so they have a fractional dimension!
That is how they can fit infinity into a finite space. Their curve is so torturous that it is more than
one dimensional. In fact it can get so wiggly that it actually does become a **space-filling
curve**, in which case the **fractal dimension** will be 2.0 (a surface!).

In each iteration we replaced each line with a scaled-down seed shape. The amount it scales by is the
**scaling ratio**. It is the ratio between the length of the line to be replaced, and the
length of a **baseline**. The dashed line is the baseline. So the scaling ratio of the
first segment is about 2.2/8, the length of the line segment, over the length of the baseline.